– Ram Chandra Rupakheti
Karl Marks did not satisfy with society about the labor principle. According to him, the societies are classified into two class: capitalist and labor class or have and haves not. This theory of surplus-value was developed by Karl Marks between 1867. This theory has been taken from the theory of labor value by David Ricardo.
According to Karl Marks, Labour is the most important means of production among the means of production i.e., land, labour, capital, and organization. The amount of labour is embodied in a commodity. Labour is employed for producing and processing raw materials. The value of the commodity is determined by the quantity and skill of labor under conditions of social production. Although they are exploited by industrialists for their greed. The value of raw material is enhanced by conversion due to the engagement of labor. Capitalists enjoy the surplus-value or value addition to the cost of production which includes the payment made to factors of production. The labor produces more value than they are paid by the capitalists who grab the surplus as their profit. Competition makes the capitalists bring down the wages of the labor to the minimum necessary for mere subsistence.
In another hand, competition makes the capitalists bring down the wages of the labor to the minimum necessary for mere subsistence. the excess of labor time, which the capitalists take from the worker, over labor power, which the capitalist pays to the worker, is the capitalist’s profit or “surplus value”. The surplus-value represents exploitation. The surplus value taken by the capitalist increases when the length of the working day (value of working time) increases, however, the surplus-value decreases when the subsistence wage (value of labor power) increases. Historically, a great deal of the struggle between workers and bosses has been over the length of the workday.
While talking about the lifestyle of workers, the workers are lived in the slums area within the cities. The price is only a monetary expression of value. The progressive concentration of the capital in the hands of fewer and increase of ill-paid workers embitters the relation between the two. This compels the workers to organize themselves and fight for their right i.e., class conflict or struggle. Eventually, the general public in desperate circumstances will rebel and overthrow the capitalist system of manufacturing and transfer economic ownership and political control into public hands. As capitalists sought to increase profits, they rely more on constant capital (machinery, building, and raw materials). Tough competition intensifies laborer more and will be released and as a result many defeated capitalists will join the same class of the proletariat.
The philosophy of Karl Mark is very important in every society and every industry. The laborer is paid with the remuneration for his survival of livings. This surplus can be used to maintain the muscle power in the ancient societies too, to soldiers in the feudalistic societies and government in the modern capitalist economist. Therefore, the appropriation of the surplus is called ‘exploitation’ by karl Marks.
Nowadays, there are labor standards in every nation that become a member of international labor organization. The workers get social securities, over time, ownership scheme, gratuity, and pension besides remuneration. They will get forced leave too with salary benefits to as per labor act, 2074 in Nepal. However, the miserable conditions are still prevalent there in industries to the laborers. They do not get any funds, social security schemes, and overtime payments. The policymakers are suggested to settle the disputes that occurred due to the exploitation of workers. The provision of labour act and social security fund may protect to such victims. In such circumstances, Karl Marks gave the concept of surplus value over labor exploitation. The government should take initiation by taking labor audits from time to time in such industries.