• Krishna Prasad Paudel, KM Expert

         The World Health Organization (WHO) report of 2018 accounted that globally, 829 000 people die each year because of diarrhoea which is mostlya result of unsafe drinking-water, sanitation, and hand hygiene.To mitigate the risk of disease, a global initiation has begun, particularly, in the area of WASH. One such example is integrating WASH related strategies in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG). The goal 6 of the SDG provides a new context for WASH sector.It targets to reduce water-related diseases more specifically, diarrhoeal diseases by 25–35% increasing WASH integration and making a possible collaboration across sectors and programs. Furthermore, to meet the ultimate target to goal 6 of increasing the life expectancy of the citizen of the world, particularly for the child of the developing countries, it is expected that reduction in WASH prone disease will increase the increase the life of the both urban and rural habitants of the world. Universal access to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene for all, improved water quality, efficiency of water use, integrated water resource management, and protect and restore ecosystem are the key strategies highlighted in the goal.

Based on the SDG 6, the WHO developed six WASH strategies to minimize the WASH related risk. They are listed as; (1) Develop and disseminate norms, tools, standards,(2) Empower countries through technical cooperation, (3) Monitoring and research to inform policies and program, (4) Coordinate with multi sectoral partners and lead processes, (5) Promote integration of WASH with other program, and (6) Respond to emerging issues. These strategies focus on standard-setting and regulations at national level, particularly for drinking-water safety, effective surveillance approaches, recreational water quality, sanitation safety, safe wastewater use, WASH in health and educational facilities, and WASH monitoring to enhance the knowledge and awareness of WASH to general public.However, these strategies are related with disseminating the information and enhancing knowledge on WASH of general public.So,  knowledge management tool can be an applicable measure for increasing efficiency in both advocacy and capacity building process of  general public thus reduction in the WASH related risk..

So, this paper discusses  on WASH knowledge management, particularly in urban context to minimize the related risk. At present context, the digital  demands and enhances some aspects of the WASH activities and policies for its dissemination strategy The following possible activities can be effective to advocate as well as  aware the citizen about WASH in the context of urban setting in Nepal.

  1. Develop the WASH Program: Make viable recommendations on operational strategies in the areas of knowledge management, participatory communication, social mobilization, and behaviour. Change and adopt appropriate materials and media to reach target audiences.
  2. WASH Knowledge Products: The WASH knowledge management and dissemination strategy organizes and manages the formative research, development, pre-test, and production of culturally relevant evidence-based WASH knowledge for its end users.
  3. WASH Communication Materials: The WASH knowledge management need to develop the communication materials. The communication materials ensure effective and efficient program delivery, including facilitating behavior change, where necessary.
  4. Capacity Building Support: Develop training materials and activities to build capacity in knowledge management and dissemination strategy. The people who are involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of program knowledge management and communication intervention, in support of program sustainability can be capacity.
  5. Coordination and Collaboration with Government and Development Partners: Develops partnerships and coordinates with communities, government, civil society, private sector, academia and media as a means of developing, reviewing and promoting the evidence-based knowledge management and communications strategy and plan provide technical support as required. Knowledge exchange among WASH sector partners to promote diffusion of good practice to WASH is worthy. Collaboration among government officials, community leaders, UN, private sector, academia, media and bilateral agencies and NGOs in the organization of activities, operational research, advocacy,and exchange of information and ideas support to enhance program knowledge management and dissemination strategies.
  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of WASH KM Dissemination Strategy: Analyze and evaluate data to ensure compliance and achievement of objectives and recommend corrective action, when necessary, to meet program objectives. Prepare monitoring and evaluation reports in accordance with the established guidelines, methods and procedures.Disseminate knowledge management and communication research findings, ensure exchanges and sharing of experience, lessons learned, best practices, and new methods to government officials, program staff, and other development partners.

The WASH KM dissemination strategies need to provide technical assistance to the WASH KM program to the GON including development partners. This strategy particularly focuses onto systematically generated evidence from the field (Knowledge Management) and converts this into advocacy, approaches, and tools to change the behavior of both communities and WASH service providers/policy makers (Communications for Development) to aware WASH in urban setting. The WASH KM dissemination strategy helps to address the issues of; drinking water quality and safety, sanitation and wastewater management, WASH in health care facilities, investment for WASH, access of safely managed drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, integration of WASH program to other program of Government, and emerging issues of WASH.